Emoticons defined by wikipedia are:
An emoticon (/ɨˈmoʊtɨkɒn/) is a pictorial representation of a facial expression using punctuation marks and letters, usually written to express a person's feelings or mood.
Emoticons are often used to alert a responder to the tenor or temper of a statement, and can change and improve interpretation of plain text; emoticons for a smiley face :-) and sad face :-( appear in the first documented use in digital form.
In iOS these emoticons can be found in any application which uses the keyboard.
Holding the globe symbol (highlighted with the green circle in the photo) an emoticons quick menu. Without lifting your digit, slide it upwards until Emoji turns blue and release. You now have the pic of all the emoticons anyone. would ever want.
Tap the globe symbol (highlighted with the green circle in the photo) to reveal
To return to your regular keyboard tap the globe symbol (highlighted with the green circle in the photo)
It's worth noting not all emoticons will display correctly on non iOS devices.